- By the end of 2009, 740,000 (range 560,000-920,000) adults and children were estimated to be living with HIV, with 48,000 (range 41,000-55,000) new infections taking place in this year. Among them, 105,000 (range 97,000 -112,000) were estimated to be AIDS cases and 26,000 (range 22,000-30,000) to have died of HIV-related causes in 2009.
- Of the estimated 740,000 HIV positives, 44.3% were infected through heterosexual transmission, 14.7% through homosexual transmission, 32.2% through IDU, 7.8% through commercial plasma donation and transfusion of infected blood and blood product, and 1% through MTCT.
- 12.3 % (or 91,000) PLHIV were infected through sexual contact between HIV positives and their regular partners. This figure was 10.4% (73,000) in 2007 HIV estimation and 6.4% (41,600) in 2005 HIV estimation.
Of the 48,000 new infections in 2009, 42.2% were transmitted through heterosexual contact, 32.5% through homosexual contact, 24.3% through IDU, and 1.0% through MTCT.
- It was estimated that 190,000 PLHIV were in need of ARV treatment end 2009.
- By the end of August 2010, the cumulative total of reported HIV positives was 361,599, including 127,203 AIDS cases and 65,104 recorded deaths.
- Among reported cases, the proportion due to homosexual and heterosexual transmission has exhibited a gradual growth trend over the years. The proportion resulting from homosexual transmission increased from 2.5% of cases in 2006 to 3.4% in 2007. In 2008 it reached 5.9%, and in 2009, 8.6%. It reached 7.1% from January to August of 2010. Heterosexual transmission increased from 30.6% in 2006 to 38.9% in 2007. In 2008 it reached 40.3% and in 2009 stood at 47.1%. It rose to 53.8% from January to August of 2010. Mother-to-child transmission has fluctuated between 1.3%-1.5%.
- 30.1% of the cumulative total of PLHIV was female.
- ART program for adult PLHIV is being conducted in 1806 counties in all 31 provinces with 75,477 currently on treatment by August of 2010. Cumulative number of adult PLHIV received ART was 95,631.
- Pediatric ART program is being conducted in 306 counties in 27 provinces with 1,680 currently on treatment by August of 2010. Cumulative number of PLHIV aged less than 15 received ART was 2,009.
- 3,927 adult and 128 children PLHIV currently received 2nd line ART by end of August 2010.
- Drug resistance reached up to over 30% in provinces where free ARV treatment program began in 2003, for instance 30.3% in Henan province, 26.6% in Anhui province and 19.2% in Hubei province. It could be estimated that up to 8-10,000 patients would be requiring second line drugs in China.
Stigma and Discrimination
- A high degree of stigmatization of people living with HIV exists in general population. A survey among 6000 people living in 6 Chinese cities in 2008 revealed:
- 41.3% are unwilling or strongly unwilling to work in the same place as a HIV positive person.
- 64.9% would be unwilling or strongly unwilling to live in the same room as a HIV positive person.
- 47.8% would be unwilling or strongly unwilling to eat food the same place as a person living with HIV.
- 63.6% would be unwilling or strongly unwilling to receive services, e.g. a haircut, from a person living with HIV.
- Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV is severe. The China Stigma Index survey conducted among more than 2,000 PLHIV in 2009 showed:
- 32% of all respondents said that their status had been revealed to others without their permission.
41.7% reported having faced severe HIV-related discrimination.
- More than 76% of all survey respondents said that their family members had experienced discrimination as a result of their HIV status.
- Since being diagnosed with HIV nearly 14.8% said they had been refused employment or a work opportunity because of their HIV status.
- Of those respondents with children, 9.1% said that their children, who were not necessarily HIV positive themselves, had been forced to leave school because of the HIV status of their parents.
- Termination of a pregnancy is regularly recommended to pregnant women living with HIV. 11.9% of women living with HIV who had partners since they were diagnosed with HIV had been pressurized into terminating a pregnancy by health staff.
- A substantial proportion of medical staff (26.0 percent), government officials (35.0 percent) and teachers (36.0 percent) changed their stance after learning of a person’s HIV positive status into a ‘discriminatory’ or ‘very discriminatory’ attitude.