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pdf | UNAIDS, UNICEF | 2011 | Download
Experiences No. 11: Community Support for HIV Positive Women in China

In 2006, UNICEF, working jointly with the Chinese government and technical organizations, established peer support networks in all six high HIV prevalence provinces to improve the quality of life of women living with HIV and strengthen community-based care and health service linkages. These peer support networks are providing a number of critical benefits and services, particularly in terms of connecting HIV positive women together, allowing them to support one another, to access essential health services, and to receive various government grants such as the social welfare allowance.

pdf | UNAIDS | 2010 | Download
Experiences No. 10: Chengdu Tongle: Integrated Behaviour Change Interventions with Men who have Sex with Men (MSM)

In December 2002, with the support of the UK-China Project, the Chengdu Tongle Health Counselling Service Centre began implementing HIV behaviour change, interventions with the MSM population in Chengdu. By 2006, it is estimated that the number of people covered by these interventions had reached 14,000. Chengdu Tongle’s interventions are implemented through a range of channels, and adopt a variety of approaches, with the aim of effectively engendering behaviour change among Chengdu’s MSM population.

pdf | UNAIDS, Other organisations and agencies | 2010 | Download
Experiences No 9: Exploring Financing Models for Supporting ARV Treatment Costs through the CHAI-Xinjiang BOH program
Keywords : experiences, financing, Clinton, CHAI, Xinjiang, ART, funding

Due to its poverty and remoteness, the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region has experienced significant challenges in addressing technical capacity and overcoming resource barriers in responding to HIV. By mid-2006, the cumulative number of reported cases of HIV in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region was 18,206 and the total estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) was 60,000. 88% of Xinjiang’s PLHIV reside in the Yili region, Urumqi City, and Aksu and Kashgar prefectures. Of these PLHIV, 77% contracted HIV through injecting drug use (IDU). Historically, the majority of PLHIV in Xinjiang have not sought or remained on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), largely due to the financial costs of baseline testing and follow-up lab testing, as well as the costs of opportunistic infection (OI) treatment.

pdf | UNAIDS, UNFPA, Other organisations and agencies | 2010 | Download
Experiences No 8: A Health Service CentreBased Approach
Keywords : Experiences, sex workers, SW, FSW, Hubei, entertainment establishments, prevention

This issue of the Experiences Series describes interventions carried out among sex workers operating in entertainment establishments located in the commercial area of Xiangyang District, Xiangfan City, Hubei Province. These interventions were based around health service centre set up by the Xiangyang CDC. The interventions formed a part of the China-UNFPA Project, a joint initiative of UNFPA and the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) to explore comprehensive AIDS response models suitable for China.

pdf | UNAIDS, Other organisations and agencies | 2010 | Download
Experiences No 7: Good for You, Good for Me
Keywords : Experiences, IDU, injecting drug users, huxianghao, PSI, PWID, PUD, Yunnan, detoxification, community

Population Services International China’s head office is headquartered in Kunming, the capital city of southern China’s Yunnan Province. In 2007, Yunnan had a cumulative total of 57,325 HIV cases amongst its population of almost 45 million and thus has the dubious distinction of being the Chinese province with the greatest number of reported cases of HIV. Bordered by Myanmar, Vietnam and Laos and located along major drug trafficking routes from the infamous “Golden Triangle” opium producing area, Yunnan is estimated to have over 80,000 drug users who inject heroin. Despite an increase in awareness of harm reduction methods among IDUs in Yunnan, the sharing of needles and other injection equipment remains a common method of HIV transmission in this population. HIV prevalence among Yunnan’s IDUs is over 28 percent, with some prefectures reporting prevalences as high as 75 percent.

pdf | UNAIDS, Other organisations and agencies | 2011 | Download
Experiences No 6: The Positive Talks Project- Talking Positive about HIV
Keywords : positive talks, stigma, discrimination, awareness raising, GIPA

The Positive Talks project is an innovative initiative to train people living with HIV to act as educational speakers/trainers, building a team of frontline educators who can play a key role in reducing stigma and discrimination from all sectors of society. As the central element of the project, more than 40 people living with HIV, recruited from across China, were trained to serve as trainers and speakers. Those recruited were given intensive training in public speaking, training, communicating with the media, positive prevention, advocacy, anti-stigma and discrimination, and other relevant content. A total of 41 fully trained Positive Talks speakers now hold training sessions and talks for government departments, private sector enterprises, UN agencies, universities, media outlets, NGOs and people in rural areas, where they are also encouraged to share their own experiences and feelings. The sessions help to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV and to bring about positive behaviour change.

pdf | UNAIDS, UNODC, Other organisations and agencies | 2010 | Download
Experiences No 5: The Daytop Prevention and Recovery Center for Drug Dependency
Keywords : IDU, injecting drug users, Yunnan, harm reduction, PWID, PUD

China has made rapid advances in addressing the issue of drug use and HIV in recent years, and especially in providing services to current and former drug users. These services include HIV prevention, care and treatment, as well as harm reduction services. While maintaining a firm policy prohibiting illegal drug use, China has adopted policies that allow harm reduction and other services to be provided to both current and former drug users.
While most of these services remain within the government system, there are both local and international NGOs working with the Government to reach drug users in a number of provinces. The Daytop Prevention and Recovery Centre for Drug Dependency, an NGO in Yunnan province, started work in 1998 and was the first of its kind in China. Initially a voluntary drug rehabilitation center, Daytop has expanded to provide a range of harm reduction, HIV prevention and other services.

pdf | UNAIDS, ILO, Other organisations and agencies | 2010 | Download
Experiences No 4: Workplace Prevention at Yunxi Tin Mining Company
Keywords : Yunxi, Experiences, migrant workers, migrants, floating population, STI, STD, stigma and discrimination, stigma, discrimination

As one of the key economic sectors in Yunnan, the mining sector employs a large proportion of Yunnan's working age men, many of whom are migrant workers without legal residence permits (hukou). The Yunxi Tin Company alone employs approximately 28,000 contracted workers and an estimated additional 50,000 migrant workers, a high proportion of which work on the company's mine sites in and around Gejiu. Research conducted by the US National Institute of Health in 2007 and 2008 indicates that the prevalence of HIV and other STIs is increasing at an alarming rate in the area. The prevalence of STI infections amongst miners in Gejiu was reported in 2008 as 1.8% for HIV, 14.9% for herpes simplex, 2.4% for syphilis, 2.1% for gonorrhoea, and 6.5% for chlamydia. Overall, 23.2% of miners in Gejiu were infected with at least one STI.

It is clear that in Gejiu, mine workers constitute an important bridge population for HIV transmission. Levels of HIV and STI infection among the mine workers themselves are also relatively high, further increasing the part they play in transmission of HIV between those in the entertainment industry and the general public.

pdf | UNAIDS, UNODC | 2009 | Download
Experiences No 3: Needle and Syringe Exchange in Chengdu
Keywords : IDU, injecting drug users, needle, needle exchange, syringe, clean needle exchange, clean needle programmes, chengdu, people who use drugs, people who inject drugs, PWID, PUD, NSP, MMT

From 2005 to 2009, Médecins du Monde (MdM), in partnership with Chengdu Municipal Centre for Disease Control (CDC), implemented an HIV/HCV prevention programme targeting injection drug users (IDUs). The programme strategy was based on the harm reduction (HR) model and was designed to contribute towards the prevention of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in the IDU community. By 2007, two community drop-in centres (DICs) that distribute sterile injection materials and offer health services (i.e. basic wound care, psychological support, social activities, health education, and hygiene services) for IDUs were opened. These fixed needle and syringe exchange programme (NSP) sites also offer meeting spaces, rest areas and fully equipped washrooms within a 50sqm space.
In 2009, DIC activities continued with a special focus on working with a team of IDU peers who, with the support of the NSP/DICs, were able to establish a grassroots IDU organization named “San Ye Cao”.
With 28% of the IDU population having injected drugs for more than 10 years, a majority encounter a range of health problems. Clinical screening of IDUs within the DICs revealed that 64% of respondents require some form of medical treatment and care. It was also documented that many IDUs do not usually seek medical treatment due to various factors (e.g. stigma, financial costs) and often endure poor quality health, accepting this as normal. Many IDU have a history of underutilization of medical services.

pdf | UNAIDS, ILO | 2009 | Download
Experiences No 2: The Hometown Fellows Campaign
Keywords : workplace, stigma, discrimination, stigma and discrimination, education, condom, treatment

There are an estimated 150-200 million Chinese rural residents who have migrated to urban industrial areas to seek work. These migrants have served as the backbone of much of China’s export oriented industrial growth during the last ten years. At their end destinations, migrants face numerous vulnerabilities, such as lack of protection of their employment rights, limited access to social security and reduced protection of their occupational safety and health. They also face increased risk of HIV infection. Most migrants are young, have limited formal education and face challenges in adjusting to life in urban areas. Research conducted through the ILO/US Department of Labor (USDOL) Workplace AIDS Education Programme in China showed that the majority of migrant workers were sexually active but lacked sufficient knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention. In response, ILO created the Hometown Fellows campaign to educate migrant workers on HIV prevention, treatment and care and to reduce stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV.

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